Tag Archive | we create what we experience

The First 8 Monkey/CHUEN of this Journal: October 18, 2015

Greetings Kin,

8 Monkey/CHUEN (8 B’aatz) – First 8 B’aatz I painted.

I wanted to share the journal from October 18, 2015, the day I made a commitment to Count the Days. I had been calling myself a daykeeper since 2002 without a Dedicated Practice. I looked at the Tzolk’in every day for some synchronicity. That was as far as I looked.

I had written a few posts from the calendar on the blog, and thought it would be a tool for organization. Then one day, I mentioned the 21-day Gratitude Ceremony in a post. I thought, why talk about it, if you aren’t going to do it. I committed to 21 days. “What had I done? What would I even have to write tomorrow?”

Don’t hold me to any Wisdom about the Maya from 2015. I guess it was good I picked a narrow topic. I couldn’t even Sign my Name.

On that 8 B’aatz I realized I never made a real commitment. I Initiated myself. As my Offering, I made a commitment to 260 journals and 260 glyphs, one for every day.

Material changes have followed and I’m still following that path to another Dream. I could never measure the value of a worldly return to the Consciousness to see all the Blessings that were Always there and are Eternal.

I couldn’t have done it without YOU. I’m grateful to Celebrate the Day it began with you.
The Sun is shining, the Mother Finch is singing her song to it, and I placed my Love there. The Signs and Symbols will rise with tomorrow’s Sun, the beginning of our New Life on Earth.

in lak’ech, Debra  – HAPPY NEW LIFE

BELOW – THE JOURNAL AS IT STARTED: Typos, errors and all (like always)

21 Days of Gratitude, Day 4 – Happy Maya New Year!

Wajxaqib’, 8 B’atz’/Chuen/Monkey

8 Monkey/Chuen/B’atz’

Galactic Tone 8: Justice – Harmony and balance are the intent of Eight. Eights carefully weigh ll evidence to reach a balance of justice. Eight is the power of organization demonstrated in statement, “as above, so below”. The energy of 8 organizes all levels of creation.

Monkey/Chuen/B’atz’: Known to the maya as the weaver of time – Monkey takes ideas as threads of vines and weaves them into the fabric of our reality.

HAPPY MAYA NEW YEAR! (Waqxaqui (8) B’atz)

Wajxaqib’, 8 B’atz’/Chuen/Monkey

Wajxaqib’, 8 B’atz’/Chuen/Monkey

The K’iche’ Maya of highland Guatemala honor this day, 8 B’atz’ (Chuen/Monkey) as the beginning of the 260-day cycle of the Tzolk’in calendar. This is a special day when the Maya community joins to celebrate with Fire Ceremonies of gratitude and is the day of initiation for Shaman and Mayan Daykeepers.

When Maya people celebrate the Tzolkin new year, they are celebrating that the creation of the world has been fulfilled and that a new cycle of 260 days begins. The ceremony includes calling all of the 260 days of the Tzolkin/Cholq’ij calendar. Monkey is the first one called in during the Count of Days in Guatemalan Mayan fire ceremonies because he signifies the beginning of time.

These ancient sacred ceremonies are a time of purification, blessing and celebration now recognized and honored by Daykeepers throughout the world as well as the traditional Maya. Among the practices of a Daykeeper is to welcome the inspiration of a new Sun, and to send a message of love forward on the Sun in lak’ech to the next Daykeepers waiting for the dawn.

To all my relations, I am grateful for honored traditions brought forward from our ancestors that bring meaning and connection to our lives. I am grateful for every new beginning and for the opportunity it brings to be made new once again and to clear a way for a fresh path forward.

Most of all, I am grateful to hold a sacred space with those that share the path of beauty that we may all move forward in harmony and in the spirit of lak’ech – “I am another yourself.”

Today brings an opportunity join in a celebration in harmony with all that is. As this new day dawns, I send my love around to you on the Sun.

13 Star/LAMAT – Holding Power

13 Star/LAMAT (Cherokee, Rabbit/NOQUI’SEGWA)

13 Star/LAMAT

13 Star/LAMAT

Galactic Tone 13: Ascension; Thirteen assists us to go to the next higher step, propels us to try something new or to try again. Thirteen energy takes us over the next mountain just to see what is there. Thirteen carries the last success to the newest effort. Thirteen is a number associated with the Ascended Masters, creation, expansion, and manifestation.

Star/LAMAT: Star energy is multiplication of all things to abundance. Star has been associated with the fertility of rabbits for its ability to multiply. As each sun in the sky, Star persons shine equally in all directions. This natural tendency of harmony and balance can become compulsion, motivating Star to be too agreeable and too generous, rejected gifts cause fear and resentment. When a Star believes it has been given too much, they are weakened or may even collapse. In this “Black Hole” state, Stars are prone to verbal jousting and arguing to force their point of view on everyone.

Cherokee, Rabbit/NOQUI’SEGWA: Symbol-Venus, The Morning Star cycle of 260 days and Evening Star cycle of another 260 days, inspired the 13 numbers, 20 Day sign Sacred Calendar. Rabbit is the Trickster of Cherokee culture, matching the Coyote in other nations. The personification of Light and New Life, Sunrise, the scion of the Moon-Father of earth children, the Rabbit is fertility, be fruitful and multiply. Represents softness, gentleness and vulnerability. LAMAT– Totem Rabbit. Energies of re-birth, regeneration, ripening, harvest and abundance. This person is overflowing with love energy in all areas of life. Spiritual growth is natural and with ease due to the unconditional love energy that flows.

See the 13-Day Trecena Guide if you’re following along with the trecena.

Daykeeper’s Journal:

Holding Power

Galactic Tone 13 is the final day of our journey through the trecena of Wisdom/CIB. We are capable of more than we were before. Through our powerful experiences and teachings of CIB, we gained a new vision of our potential and shed parts of ourselves that have held us back.

As we look back from where we started we can see new or better ways to manifest our dreams, or we may discover something more worthy. We were created as sparks of the Divine Light for the purpose of bringing Love to the world.

Star/LAMAT brings the energy that multiplies whatever we focus on. LAMAT helps us to see the endless possibilities of being. Starlight shines in all directions. We are glowing in the light of our profound new experiences. Made fertile as the Rabbit, our Love is overflowing. Star cautions us not to give all our Light away.

“Holding Power” is a powerful teaching shared in the Medicine Circle. It was given as a caution after my first Sun/Moon Dance. Over the course of the 4-day ceremony there were many new insights and powerful experiences in Spirit. Dancers were guided not to speak of our experiences for 3 months… to “hold our power.”

Have you ever been so excited about something that you rush to tell the story, only to find it dismissed in some way by the hearer? Suddenly we may struggle to see what we have shared in its original glory. When someone else can’t see what we have seen, we may begin to question ourselves. We can lose the full power of our own experience.

Some things are meant for us alone to know. We are never able to relate the true depth of our experiences. Each must find their own True light. We can only shine a light on a way to find it.

To all my relations, may I be ever-grateful that I am gifted with experiences that are meant for only me.  May I hold these gifts within, so that their beauty may be multiplied as a light to shine the way on the road ahead.

In lak’ech, I am another you

Jaguar Woman, 9 Eagle/MEN

MESSAGE FROM LAMAT:

Your Light shines brightest when your focus is turned within. When you have perfected this, you are as a Star in Supernova – the brightest light in the universe.

SUPERNOVA: A supernova is a stellar explosion that briefly outshines an entire galaxy, radiating as much energy as the Sun or any ordinary star is expected to emit over its entire life span. A star supernovas when it collapses into its core, or when it has been re-ignited.

12 Jaguar/IX – Gifts of Spirit

12 Jaguar/IX (Cherokee, Panther/SAHO’NI)

Mayan Glyph, 12 Jaguar/IX

12 Jaguar/IX

Galactic Tone 12: Twelve is a gift of great capacity of retrospection. It is this ability that allows Twelve to connect disassociated parts into a (new) functioning whole. The energy of Twelve is that which presents a new piece of understood information or accumulated experience to be applied.

Jaguar/IX: Born with a deep love of the Mother Earth, Jaguar or shaman is directly tied to the source of all Earth magic. They possess great power of intellect and strength or character through integrity. Jaguar energy is feminine in nature and is the ruling spirit of jungles, plains, and mountains. The spirit of Jaguar inhabits the Mayan temples and is called on to assist in spiritual as well as in material ways. Jaguar is also the god/goddess of gratefulness. Patience born of strength and skill can turn to pounce of quick decision and action. Both bold and stealthful, Jaguars do not often attack directly and communications from them usually contain some mystery. In the absence of integrity, Jaguars power corrupts becoming a search for wealth and fame.

Cherokee, Panther/SAHO’NI: Panther is symbolized by comets, meteors, shooting stars, fireballs, and magicians.  Meteors appearing around the middle of November are Heralds of the Coming of the Light, the Cherokee New Year. Panther is the Shadow of the Sphinx, Herald of the Dawn, guardian of the night when the sun is traveling through the underworld. Panthers have unlimited imaginations, visualizations, and are spellbinding speakers. The Totem Jaguar is the guardian of the portals to other dimensions; shamanic abilities will open; multi-dimensional magic; healer, leader, way shower energy when used for spiritual growth.  Abuse would be for using this power for control or negative purposes; must find a powerful balance.

Visit the Tolkin Page for additional resources and insight on the Trecena Night/AKBAL.

Gifts of Spirit

Jaguar/IX presents a time when new portals and dimensions are open to us. On this day, as the ‘Coming of the Light’ we are open to receive our spiritual gifts. Tone 12 empowers our gift of retrospection and insight. We are given Jaguar vision to see something we haven’t seen before.

Among all the Day Signs, IX is the one most capable to open us to our highest levels of consciousness. IX is the Magician who holds the memory of the Earth’s creation. IX has the power to communicate between the real and the unreal, the positives and negatives, the possible and the impossible. Guatesol

We are the Ones we have been waiting for. We are encouraged to seek our inner knowing. We must divorce ourselves from all personal motives to receive our gifts in full measure. What gifts we may be given will only endure to serve the good of all.

As such, IX calls us to be in good standing with one another. Only through right relationships are we able to see what is truly needed and how our gifts can be most helpful.

To all my relations, may I greet this day with the anticipation and in gratitude for the new understanding it will bring. May I be made worthy through my highest intentions to receive the gifts that would be presented to me. Help me see beyond my own personal gain so that I may know where healing and light is most needed to serve the greatest good for all.

in lak’ech, i am another you

Jaguar Woman, 9 Eagle/MEN

8 Dog/OC – As Above, So Below

8 Dog/OC (Cherokee, Wolf/WOLF/KANA’TI)

8 Dog/OC

8 Dog/OC

Galactic Tone 8: Justice. Harmony and balance are the intent of Eight. Eights carefully weigh all evidence to reach a balance of justice. Eight is the power of organization demonstrated in the statement, “As above, so below”. From simplicity to infinity, the energy of Eight organizes all levels of creation. Some Eights are “Neat Freaks”.

Dog/OC: Courageous, loyal and warm-hearted, very alert and valiant, people born of Dog are respected for their sense of justice and their protection. People born of the sun sign Dog are very sensual and know how to enjoy life. Playfulness and a good understanding of the basic human nature lead to prosperity for Dog. Dogs are good team players who love to travel and have a keen sense of their position in society. Dogs are ambitious and will take opportunities when they offer themselves, including infidelities. Dog persons share the nature of coyotes, spies, wolves and lawyers

Cherokee, 8  WOLF/KANA’TI: Wolf’s symbol is Sirius (Dog star) and Antares, one or the other always visable but never at the same time.  Wolf is our brother, shares our very roots.  All dogs are domesticated wolves, companionship and guidance.  Connecting link between the worlds. One who inspires loyalty, diplomacy and sense of humor with unlimited potential.  A teacher, healer, pathfinder and transformer.  Sharp as obsidian, gentle as a lamb. Totem -Dog.  Loyalty and faithfulness that survives beyond death.  This was the first day of creation energy in this 4th world, sets the energy for love, loyalty and faithfulness on the 5200 year cycle.  Heart chakra energy is involved so that we can move to the state of “unconditional love” with compassion.  All sexual desire issues that are not in harmony will surface to be cleared.

As Above, So Below

Both Galactic Tone 8 and Dog/OC speak to us about justice and harmony. The teaching, “As above, so below” illustrates that what is held as intention by the higher self, is reflected in the physical plane. This principle offers justice and harmony for all.

The power is not in the intention itself, but in the attention we are willing to invest into it. We have to first ‘see’ the completion of our intention in Spirit (above) for it to be created on the physical plane (below). As we are able to see and fully-experience our dream we are empowered to make it real.

Therefore I say to you, all things for which you pray and ask, believe that you have received them, and they will be granted you. Mark 11:24

Believing isn’t easy. Our greatest challenge is to simply believe in our dreams and in our own unlimited power. By nature, we need to see some evidence to form the belief. Really seeing our dream and believing it can become real, requires work and an investment of our personal time.

How much time do we actually spend, seeing our dreams? The outer would have us believe that daydreaming is a waste of time, yet it is the very key to creation. This is where our Spirit Tools come in handy. We are nurtured by ANY daily practice that provides a time to reflect and be centered in our gratitude.

Here we are able to realize the Truth – that we are unconditionally loved and guided, and that our dreams are the result of a larger divine purpose – worthy to come true. Seeing our own divine power as co-creators is a seed of faith we are capable to grow.

I began a new daily practice at the time of my birthday as I was choosing my seeds of intention for the coming year. I was willing to invest everything I could to turn some things around in my life. My most important new daily practice was begun by simply NOT turning on the TV in the morning. Starting my day in silence became the most critical element in my daily practice.

I start each day lighting candles and burning sage and sweetgrass as a symbolic way to clear the air and to call sacred the time I would spend with myself in Spirit. I turn to the Mayan calendar for the inspiration of the day, though one could turn to any resource or faith for inspiration.

This was a fairly simple practice to put into place, yet it has lead to some profound personal changes. I found a new freedom from commercial programming. I realized how I was constantly irritated by programming that was telling me “what everyone thinks” and “what’s on trend” – i.e., what I need to buy to be equal to everyone else.

Suddenly, I was getting so much more out of the time I set aside for myself. I didn’t WANT to turn on the TV because I was too busy in the process of learning and growing. The whole attraction of watching TV simply fell away. I couldn’t remember why it was so difficult to turn off.

To all my relations, I am grateful for the Gifts of Spirit so freely available whenever we choose to turn to them. Show me a way to grow my seed of faith into something more beautiful so I may learn and know how powerful we really are.

in lak’ech, i am another you
grateful on this Thanksgiving Day for the blessing of your presence in my life

Jaguar Woman, 9 Eagle/MEN

5 Deer/MANIK (Hand) – Spirit Tools

5 Deer/MANIK (Hand), (Cherokee Deer Ahwu’sdi)

5 Deer/MANIK

5 Deer/MANIK

Galactic Tone 5: Empowerment. At the center of the cube we find Five. Five is an intelligent, organizing force which manages communications and materials, knowledge and application. Fives are natural networkers who gather what is needed. These persons can probe directly to the core of any situation making them excellent investigators.

Deer/MANIK (Hand): Deer are spirit tools. Silence itself is a spiritual experience for Deer. For Deer life is a pilgrimage. Deer are dominant persons who defend the people and will make sacrifices for others. The spirit of Deer upholds the pillars of the four directions. With the power inherent in the number four, Deer pushes away bad influences or negative energies. Skill and quality of work are very important to Deer. They are presented with tools for every task in life and it is with these that they are able to rise above limitations. Deer has a habit of keeping every tool it has ever used. This leads to clutter and indecision, loss and procrastination. When confronted with promises not kept, Deer becomes stubborn, manipulative and evasive.

Cherokee, Deer/Ahwu’sdi: Symbolized by Constellation Galagina, the Stag, known as Taurus, the Bull. It does not include the Pleiades and Hyades clusters which in Cherokee are viewed as separate. To feed, gatherers of food and supplies, they enjoy rituals, ceremonials, feasts, the souls of hospitality, sociability. Freedom versus security issues often inspire leadership and unique solutions.  Combined with artistic and inspiring energies in harmony with lunar cycles, they nourish the clans. Totem-Deer:  A priest or shaman, a powerful person in general, to overwhelm an individual with one’s personal power, divination; inclined to become a teacher, healer, guru, civic leader, or politician.  Ability to create harmonic resonance.

Visit the Tolkin Page for resources and additional insight on the trecena, Night/AKBAL.

Spirit Tools

On 5 Deer/MANIK we are empowered with new Spiritual Gifts – the tools needed at this time to help us move forward. Deer/MANIK is eager to help us out, drawing from every Spirit Tool it has ever used. Deer/MANIK has the vision to see our unlimited potential and to know exactly what is needed.

We are reminded by Deer that Silence is a powerful tool. Only in silence are we able to hear what Spirit would have us know. And in silence, we are also given the eyes to see and experience our creation in Spirit.  When we experience our dream with a deep sense of gratitude, we are opened to see how empowered we truly are as co-creators in the world.

As with any new tool, we may find ourselves establishing a new practice. We can be confident that while we may be learning something new, Deer offers us the gift of Spiritual protection, pushing away bad influences and negative energies.

To all my relations, may I live in gratitude for the many gifts I am offered from Spirit. Help me to remember that the stillness within is the place of my ultimate power where I may receive the Spirit Tools that Deer would choose especially for me.

in lak’ech, i am another you

Jaguar Woman, 9 Eagle/MEN

 

21 Days of Gratitude, Day 4 – Happy Maya New Year!

8 Monkey/Chuen/B’atz’

Galactic Tone 8: Justice – Harmony and balance are the intent of Eight. Eights carefully weigh ll evidence to reach a balance of justice. Eight is the power of organization demonstrated in statement, “as above, so below”. The energy of 8 organizes all levels of creation.

Monkey/Chuen/B’atz’: Known to the maya as the weaver of time – Monkey takes ideas as threads of vines and weaves them into the fabric of our reality.

HAPPY MAYA NEW YEAR! (Waqxaqui (8) B’atz)

Wajxaqib’, 8 B’atz’/Chuen/Monkey

Wajxaqib’, 8 B’atz’/Chuen/Monkey

The K’iche’ Maya of highland Guatemala honor this day, 8 B’atz’ (Chuen/Monkey) as the beginning of the 260-day cycle of the Tzolk’in calendar. This is a special day when the Maya community joins to celebrate with Fire Ceremonies of gratitude and is the day of initiation for Shaman and Mayan Daykeepers.

When Maya people celebrate the Tzolkin new year, they are celebrating that the creation of the world has been fulfilled and that a new cycle of 260 days begins. The ceremony includes calling all of the 260 days of the Tzolkin/Cholq’ij calendar. Monkey is the first one called in during the Count of Days in Guatemalan Mayan fire ceremonies because he signifies the beginning of time.

These ancient sacred ceremonies are a time of purification, blessing and celebration now recognized and honored by Daykeepers throughout the world as well as the traditional Maya. Among the practices of a Daykeeper is to welcome the inspiration of a new Sun, and to send a message of love forward on the Sun in lak’ech to the next Daykeepers waiting for the dawn.

To all my relations, I am grateful for honored traditions brought forward from our ancestors that bring meaning and connection to our lives. I am grateful for every new beginning and for the opportunity it brings to be made new once again and to clear a way for a fresh path forward.

Most of all, I am grateful to hold a sacred space with those that share the path of beauty that we may all move forward in harmony and in the spirit of lak’ech – “I am another yourself.”

Today brings an opportunity join in a celebration in harmony with all that is. As this new day dawns, I send my love around to you on the Sun.

21 Days of Gratitude, Day 2

Since yesterday’s post suggested 21 Days of Gratitude, I took my own advice and will be sharing these 21 Days with you… this is Day TWO!   Jaguar Woman

6 Offering/Muluc/Moonoffering2

Galactic Tone 6: Six is responsiveness and the art of negotiation. It is the movement of volume through space that creates time. This energy in action is like the art of dance or a great athlete in motion. Six facilitates dynamic developments in all aspects of life.

Offering/Muluc is also known as the sign of water. Ceremonially, Maya use water as an offering in baptisms and purifications. These ceremonies are done to bring about a collective strength, adaptability and harmony. In sincere appreciation, Offering people gladly give more than they ask for themselves. Offering persons are dynamic communicators with great intelligence. Like a shaken vessel of water Offering people regain equilibrium quickly.  Mayan Majix

Mitakuye Oyasin, All my Relations

In the traditional ways of the Medicine Circle a Sacred Offering would be preceded by honoring all that have gone before, the Grandfathers, Grandmothers, as well as the Great Spirit, the Four Directions, the Above and Below. In humility, one would establish the intention that the Offering be given in a most respectful way.

Muluc/Offering can stir the emotions as it relates to water and the Moon. At the core of Offering is another opportunity for gratitude, expressed as humility. We are who we are because of all that is and all that has gone before – every person and every experience was important to our becoming.

Make an offering and give thanks in the name of… all that you are grateful for.

5 Lamat/Star/Rabbit – Multiplying Empowerment

5 Lamat/Rabbit

Galactic Tone 5: Empowerment
Star/Lamat/Rabbit: Power of Multiplication

Five is an intelligent organizing force which manages communications and materials, knowledge and application. Lamat as sign of the “star” shines in all directions. As rabbit, Lamat brings multiplication of all things to abundance.

All things to abundance… we manifest that which we give our attention to.

Gratitude is among the most powerful spirit tools we can use to change our lives. What if we chose to multiply our gratitude?

One of the proven and worthy tools offered through Medicine Circle teachings is a ceremony of 21-days of gratitude. The Mayans practiced similar ceremony leading up to special dates on the calendar.

It’s simple – for 21 days, start the day in gratitude and return your thoughts to gratitude when you become conscious of them wandering elsewhere. Instead of praying for what you want, pray in gratitude for what you already have.

Keep a Gratitude Journal for 21 days and choose your own ceremony – whether it’s lighting a candle, making an offering, or greeting the sunrise. The real power of ceremony is not in the action but in remembering that action was taken.

“Be grateful for what you have and you’ll end up having more. Focus on what you don’t have and you will never have enough.”

The Crow Calls

crow xA Crow calls at my balcony and I’m suddenly transported into another world.

If you’re unfamiliar with Crow’s social behavior, they hang in communities that network over an entire region and beyond. It’s this “Crow Network” I find so compelling, combined with another Crow behavior – the ability to either adopt you as friend, or hold a grudge like your worst enemy.

They are considered among the smartest birds and capable enough to recognize your car. As the stories go, if you make Crow your enemy, they signal others that you are a target. By the other turn, if Crow is your friend – other Crows know not to mess with you. You have the full “Crow Endorsement.”

The Crow captured my attention and in a moment I forgot every care, rushing to leave a treat.  He reminded me of the REAL world – the natural world, always there in any moment.

The Crow Endorsement will be a Spirit Tool I can use. When I see a Crow, I’ll remember how connected we all are – in ways beyond our understanding.

in lak’ech

Who knows…
https://www.audubon.org/news/seattle-girl-befriends-neighborhood-crows-making-bird-lovers-everywhere-jealous

Spirit Tools – 10 Manik/DEER/Hand (Cherokee Deer Ahwu’sdi)

Galactic Tone 10: Manifestation
Manik/Deer/Hand: Spiritual Tools

Manik/Deer

Manik/Deer

What were once intentions or ideas, hopes or fears become physically present… that’s 10. Deer upholds the pillars of the 4 directions and brings the power inherent in the number 4, and is capable of pushing away bad influences or negative energies.

What we focus on becomes real. Deer guides us to understand that our focus and intentions are our most valuable Spirit tools. By shifting thoughts from fear to love and promise, we are nurturing the manifestation of things hoped for, versus the unwanted.

When I realize I am focusing on what’s unwanted or dreaded, I can see that I am internally experiencing those outcomes. I have framed a picture of what the unwanted looks and feels like – feeling it as if the unwanted is already happening. So, even if it has not yet happened or NEVER happens on the physical plane, I’ve still added the experience to my history.

We don’t HAVE to do that. We can bring more desirable experiences into our lives in exactly the same manner – by taking the time to examine what the DESIRED looks and feels like – as if the ‘wanted’ has already happened. In this way we can employ our tools of prayer, reflection and gratitude.

Among the most important Spirit tools is to just REMEMBER to apply what we already know. We must face the experiences of the world as they come, but we can change ALL the responses and the experiences that we, ourselves, create.

Deer also helps us to reframe our experiences. What we may see as unwanted still holds the keys of understanding. A dear friend used to say that even bad examples hold valuable information about what NOT to do. What we are open to learn from both our wanted and unwanted experiences are the valuable tools we can choose to carry forward.

Have you manifested new Spirit tools? Look deeply into the revelations of both dark and light and consider how applying this new information can bring you closer to the desired changes in your life.

Just as small adjustments in navigation can right the course to a destination, so can even the smallest of adjustments lead us closer toward our goals. Remember to choose and USE the Spirit tools you’ve been given.